Glossary

Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
AFIS

Automated fingerprint identification system. Morpho pioneered the development of these systems, which are designed to match an individual’s fingerprints with a database containing a certain number of prints in order to establish the identity of the individual. These systems rely on image processing and matching algorithms. They are used in both police (identification of fingerprints left on the scene of a crime) and civil applications.

ANPR technology

A technology that uses various mathematical processes in order to convert an image into a text containing a vehicle’s license number.

This process has a number of steps. The first consists in applying a number of filters to eliminate faults, such as projected shadows or weak contrast.

The next step consists in locating the plate by detecting the straight edges and then the quadrilateral of the number plate, because the perspective of the projection changes the rectangle into a quadrilateral. Topological analysis methods are used to distinguish plates with one line from plates with two lines.

The characters are then isolated from one another by locating the spaces that separate them. Special algorithms are used when the characters touch one another or are damaged. This step is known as segmentation.

Then, OCR (Optical Character Recognition) converts the shapes into text that can be understood by the computer. Syntax analysis is then used to eliminate any doubts about certain characters, such as 1 and I, 0 and O, B and 8, etc.

In video streams, the same plate is visible in several images. Each image undergoes the complete processing chain, resulting in as many elementary results as there are images.
The final process consists in consolidating all these results into one final result, which is associated with a reliability score. All of the processes are completed in just a few dozen milliseconds.

Anti-copy pattern

These patterns are made up of lines produced by a patented algorithm. They are revealed when the document is copied.

APFIS

Automated palm print and fingerprint identification system. These systems are an evolution of the AFIS (automated fingerprint identification system), which are now capable of also processing palm prints.

Asymmetric encryption

(or public key encryption systems). Created in 1976, this concept uses a double-key system. Each user has a public and a private key, which are mathematically linked. The former is disclosed, while the latter is kept secret by the user.

How it works:

  • A wants to send a confidential message to B. A uses B’s public key, but only B’s private key can be used to decrypt the message.
  • A needs to provide a guarantee for B that he actually sent the message (authenticity). A uses his own private key to encrypt the message, that B then decodes using A’s public key. The message was effectively sent by A, but is not confidential.
Authenticity

The guarantee that the data received is really from the person who sent it (proof of origin).